Destroyers Allies vs Central Powers The basic strategy of all war is the amount of fire power that can be amassed to create the maximum destruction of the enemy. All battle tactics, maneuverability, mobility, supply, manpower and surprise are subjected to that principle. It was industrialization and its weapons by-product, as much as any single factor, that hastened the changes that swept over the world in the wake of the war.
Colorless is preferred over the term "clear" or "white" glass since the former term refers more accurately to the transparency of the glass not its color, i. Colorless glass was a goal of glass manufacturers for centuries and was difficult to produce because it required the use of virtually impurity-free materials.
Venetian glass makers produced their crystallo as early as the 15th century and glass makers in 18th century England made what was known as "flint" glass from virtually pure quartz rock calcined flint which was simply called "flint" Hunter Improved chemistry and glass making methods of the late 19th and early 20th century allowed for process efficiencies that made colorless glass easier and much cheaper to produce with the use of various additives in the glass mixture.
The term flint glass was and still is used somewhat erroneously by glassmakers to describe colorless glass that is made with low iron sand.
|Waterstone's 'Bookshop' (Jan 2013, somewhere in Britain)||German re-alignment to Austria-Hungary and Russian re-alignment to France, —[ edit ] In German and Russian alignment was secured by means of a secret Reinsurance Treaty arranged by Otto von Bismarck.|
It is, however, not true flint glass. Colorless glass was also called "crown" by early glassmakers Hunter Colorless glass is not always, or even usually, absolutely colorless.
It will usually have very faint tints of pink or "amethystine" faintly visible in the base of the bottle to the leftamber or "straw", grayish green, grayish blue, or grey. These faint colors are viewed easiest when looking through the thickest portion of the bottle, i.
Colorless glass is usually attained by using the purest sand source possible and by adding "decolorizing agents" to the glass batch to offset the residual iron impurities Dillon Common decolorizing agents were manganese dioxide, selenium dioxide usually in conjunction with cobalt oxideantimony and arsenious arsenic oxide which is also used as a stabilizer of selenium in decolorizing glass - or some combination of these compounds Trowbridge ; New York Herald ; Scholes ; Tooley ; Lockhart a.
Colorless glass actually does have more utility in dating and typing than most other colors, though still of limited application. Some of the better dating reliability is for bottles with manganese dioxide decolorized glass.
Upon exposure to sunlight, this glass will turn a light pink or lavender to moderately dark amethyst or purple depending on the amount of manganese and amount of ultraviolet UV light.
This is called "sun-purpled" or "sun colored amethyst " SCA glass. This bottle began its life as colorless glass and has "turned" a much darker than average color of amethyst most likely due to the application of artificial UV light or other artificial source like sterilization equipmenti.
The light lavender tint produced by manganese offsets the green tint of the iron impurities in sand creating a largely colorless glass.
For an interesting article on the artificial irradiation of historic bottles, see Dr.
Cecil Munsey's article available at this link: Manganese became known as "glassmakers soap" due to the ability to "cleanse" or neutralize the effects of other impurities in the sand, particularly iron Hunter Manganese dioxide induced colorless glass was, however, by far most commonly used from the s to about the end of World War 1.
At that time manganese dioxide use was greatly reduced for a variety of reasons, although in part because it did not work as well as other chemical decolorizers see next paragraph in the open continuous glass tanks used by the increasingly dominant bottle making machines - both semi-automatic and automatic.
It is often noted in the literature that the reason for the switch from manganese dioxide to other decolorants was due to the cut-off of imports usually from the Caucasian Mountain region of Russia to the U. However, it is more complicated than that with other reasons being wartime allocation of the now scarcer manganese to the more important need for producing steel and the dramatic increase in the application of chemical knowledge to glass manufacturing which lead to the eventual realization that glass batch mixes with selenium as the primary decolorizer simply worked better Peter Schulz, unpublished manuscript Colorless glass which was de-colorized with selenium or arsenic or typically a combination of the two in conjunction with cobalt oxide results in a very faint "straw" or amber tint to the thickest portions of the glass Scholes ; Tooley ; Lockhart b.
The picture to the left shows this color evident in the thick portion of a milk bottle underneath the line pointing out the valve mark that dates from between and based on a makers mark for the Pacific Coast Glass Company Toulouse Click Cloverdale Dairy Co.
This colorless "color" can be very diagnostic of a machine-made bottle made from about to to typically no later than the s Girade ; Lockhart b; empirical observations. The straw tinted colorless glass in bottles does show up frequently in mouth-blown bottles but typically later onesalthough can be found occasionally in bottles from the midth century.
Click French mustard bottle to view an s era bottle with a faint straw cast - evident at the heel - to the otherwise colorless glass.
Selenium was the best decolorizer for glass made in open glass tanks versus the earlier closed pots which was used with most all automatic bottle machines. Both of the above colorless glass tints can be useful diagnostic tools for an archaeologist who may be dealing with fragmental bottles.
One can be quite confident that if the fragment is colorless with a slight straw tint, it very likely is from a machine-made bottle, unlikely to date from much prior to World War 1 i. Conversely, a colorless fragment with a slight amethyst tint is quite likely to date to or prior to World War 1 and is more likely than not to be from a mouth-blown bottle.
Bottles with a grayish tint seem to date between andalthough numerous examples outside that range have been noted by the author Giarde ; empirical observations. Generally speaking, bottles of colorless glass were relatively uncommon prior to the s but became quite common after the wide spread use of automatic bottle machines in the mid to late s Kendrick ; Toulouse a; Fike ; U.
Nothing is absolute in these date range estimates, but they are believed to have reasonably high reliability. Return to the top of this page.
Aqua Aquamarine This color - like most of the colors that follow - had many subtle variations and shades.MEDAL OF HONOR WW1 RECIPIENTS - ) *N.B.
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We would be glad to answer any questions about the items we offer. World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July to 11 November Contemporaneously described as the "war to end all wars", more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of .
As early as , scientists were experimenting with methods to synthesize chemical compounds into lethal gas.. Barely into the first year of the war, , the Germans were about to release a chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. The stunned British and French soldiers soon realized they were under a gas attack and they fled the battlefield.
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SETTLEMENT PATTERNS Welsh Americans, like other British Americans, spread throughout the United States. Americans reporting Welsh ancestry on the census, in fact, divide evenly between the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West—more evenly than any other European-American group. SETTLEMENT PATTERNS Welsh Americans, like other British Americans, spread throughout the United States. Americans reporting Welsh ancestry on the census, in fact, divide evenly between the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West—more evenly than any other European-American group. World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July to 11 November Contemporaneously described as the "war to end all wars", more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of .
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