Introduction to Environmental Science Powerpoint Lecture This Powerpoint presentation is designed for the first meeting of a survey-level Introduction to Environmental Science course.
We are neither affiliated with the author of this essay nor responsible for its content. In recent years it has become clear that some environmental chemicals can cause risks to the developing embryo and fetus.
Evaluating the developmental toxicity of environmental chemicals is now a prominent public health concern. The suspected association between TCE and congenital cardiac malformations warrants special attention because TCE is a common drinking water contaminant that is detected in water supplies throughout the U.
There is a lot of concern about the clean up of toxic pollutants from the environment.
Traditional methods for cleaning up contaminated sites such as dig and haul, pump and treat, soil venting, air sparging and others are generally harmful to habitats. Some methods strip the soil of vital nutrients and microorganisms, so nothing can grow on the site, even if it has been decontaminated.
Typically these mechanical methods are also very expensive. Most of the remediation technologies that are currently in use are very expensive, relatively inefficient and generate a lot of waste, to be disposed of.
This technology is useful for soil and water remediation. Phytoremediation uses one basic concept: The pollutant can be stored in the plant phytoextractionvolatized by the plant phytovolatizationmetabolized by the plant phytodegradationor any combination of the above.
Phytoextraction is the uptake and storage of pollutants in the plants stem or leaves. Some plants, called hyperaccumulators, draw pollutants through the roots.
After the pollutants accumulate in the stem and leaves the plants are harvested. Then plants can be either burned or sold.
Even if the plants cannot be used, incineration and disposal of the plants is still cheaper than traditional remediation methods. As a comparison, it is estimated a site containing tons of contaminated soil will produce only tons of ash Black, This method is particularly useful when remediating metals.
Some metals are also being recycled from the ash.
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Phytovolatization is the uptake and vaporization of pollutants by a plant. This mechanism takes a solid or liquid contaminant and transforms it to an airborne vapor.
The vapor can either be the pure pollutant, or the plant can metabolize the pollutant before it is vaporized, as in the case of mercury, lead and selenium Boyajian and Carriera, ; Black, ; Wantanbe, Phytodegradation is plants metabolizing pollutants.
After the contaminant has been drawn into the plant, it assimilates into plant tissue, where the plant then degrades the pollutant.
This metabolization by plant-derived enzymes such as nitrosedictase, laccase, dehalogenase, and nitrilase assimilates into plant tissue, where the plant then degrades the pollutant.
This metabolization by plant-derived enzymes such as nitroredictase, laccase, dehalogenase, and nitrilase, has yet to be fully documented, but has been demonstrated in field studies Boyajian and Carriera, The daughter compounds can be either volatized or stored in the plant.
If the daughter compounds are relatively benign, the plants can still be used in traditional applications.
The most effective current phytoremediation sites in practice combine these three mechanisms to clean up a site.An opportunity cost is simply the TOTAL of all the things traded for something.
This is a broad concept. Opportunity cost includes more than just the monetary cost (money) of something. Environmental Science for Competitive Exams: Comprehensive, point-wise and updated study material and exam notes.
Essay Study Material Essay for Competitive Exams: Comprehensive, point-wise and updated study material and exam notes. Environmental Science Defined. Environmental science is a broad field of study that allows for numerous areas of specialization. The field integrates the study of biodiversity, natural resource management, sustainable development and ecology with physical sciences like .
It integrates long-standing ecological principles with more recent concepts from complex systems theory. Simple diagrams, examples, and exercises make the concepts easily understood. Ideal as a text for all college levels, as well as AP environmental science and background for K teachers.
This basic concept of learning is the main viewpoint in the Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT). The theory has been used to explain mental processes as they are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which eventually bring about learning in an individual.
Nov 06, · We continue our efforts to strengthen the link between our science and our institutional focus on sustainability, helping to optimize the balance between human health, environmental quality, social well-being and economic strength.