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Support Aeon Donate now What is music? That new club tune, obnoxious at first, might become toe-tappingly likeable after a few hearings. Put the most music-apathetic individual in a household where someone is rehearsing for a contemporary music recital and they will leave whistling Ligeti.
The simple act of repetition can serve as a quasi-magical agent of musicalisation. People seem to misattribute their increased perceptual fluency — their improved ability to Can you put pictures in essays the triangle or the picture or the melody — not to the prior experience, but to some quality of the object itself.
It makes me feel clever. But evidence has been accumulating that something more than the mere exposure effect governs the special role of repetition in music.
Cultures all over the world make repetitive music. The ethnomusicologist Bruno Nettl at the University of Illinois counts repetitiveness among the few musical universals known to characterise music the world over.
Hit songs on American radio often feature a chorus that plays several times, and people listen to these already repetitive songs many times. The play counter in iTunes reveals just how frequently we listen to our favourite tracks.
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In short, repetition is a startlingly prevalent feature of music, real and imagined. In fact, repetition is so powerfully linked with musicality that its application can dramatically transform apparently non-musical materials into song.
The psychologist Diana Deutsch, at the University of California, San Diego, discovered a particularly powerful example — the speech-to-song illusion. Finally, the original recording is represented in its entirety, as a spoken utterance.
When the listener reaches the phrase that was looped, it seems as if the speaker has broken into song, Disney-style. To experience the illusion, play the two recordings in sequence. Diana Deutsch The transformation is truly bizarre. But the speech-to-song illusion reveals that the exact same sequence of sounds can seem either like speech or like music, depending only on whether it has been repeated.
Repetition can actually shift your perceptual circuitry such that the segment of sound is heard as music: This illusion demonstrates what it means to hear something musically.
In fact, part of what it means to listen to something musically is to participate imaginatively. Repetition is the key to this participatory aspect of music.
My own lab at the University of Arkansas did some research using rondos, a repetitive kind of musical composition that was particularly popular in the late 18th century.
In our study, people who had heard classical rondos featuring exact repetition reported more of a tendency to tap or sing along than those who had heard rondos that varied the refrain a little.
Can music exist without repetition? Well, music is not a natural object and composers are free to flout any tendency that it seems to exhibit. Indeed, over the past century, a number of composers expressly began to avoid repetitiveness in their work.
In a recent study at the Music Cognition lab, we played people samples of this sort of music, written by such renowned 20th-century composers as Luciano Berio and Elliott Carter. Unbeknownst to the participants, some of these samples had been digitally altered.
Segments of these excerpts, chosen only for convenience and not for aesthetic effect, had been extracted and reinserted. These altered excerpts differed from the original excerpts only in that they featured repetition.
The altered excerpts should have been fairly cringeworthy; after all, the originals were written by some of the most celebrated composers of recent times, and the altered versions were spliced together without regard to aesthetic effect.
But listeners in the study consistently rated the altered excerpts as more enjoyable, more interesting, and — most tellingly — more likely to have been composed by a human artist rather than randomly generated by a computer. The listeners in the study were college undergraduates with no special training or experience in contemporary art music.
A phrase that sounded arbitrary the first time might come to sound purposefully shaped and communicative the second Even so, when I presented these findings at the annual meeting of the Society for Music Theory into an audience that was uncommonly well-versed in these repertoires, some people were surprised to find that the doctored versions possessed an elevated degree of persuasiveness, even to them, and even when they knew what they were hearing.
Admittedly, this study does not address the specially cultivated listening habits of the cognoscenti, but it does reveal something about the way listeners make sense of music that is new to them. Repetition serves as a handprint of human intent.
A phrase that might have sounded arbitrary the first time might come to sound purposefully shaped and communicative the second. A separate study in my lab tested whether repetition could also make snippets of music sound more musical.
We generated random sequences of notes and presented them to listeners in one of two conditions:You can’t evaluate the full damage until you’ve seen the bigger picture. Research shows that an average student can spend up to hours a term working on writing assignments.
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How to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay. In this Article: Article Summary Formulating Your Argument Organizing Your Essay Putting It All Together Sample Body Paragraphs Sample Essay Outline Community Q&A The purpose of a compare and contrast essay is to analyze the differences and/or the similarities of two distinct subjects. Nothing Good Can Come from This: Essays [Kristi Coulter] on regardbouddhiste.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Nothing Good Can Come from This is a book about generative discomfort, surprising sources of beauty. How to Write an Essay. In this Article: Article Summary Writing Your Essay Revising Your Essay Writing a Persuasive Essay Writing an Expository Essay Write a Narrative Essay Essay Help Community Q&A Throughout your academic career, you will often be asked to write essays. You may have to work on an assigned essay for class, enter an essay contest or write essays for college admissions.
Questions not just topics. While the topics are predictable enough, the actual questions are invariably extremely precise. Again, there is also a good reason for this: the examiners do not want you to learn an essay, they want to test your English and see if you can answer a precise question, rather than produce a general answer to a general topic.
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Embed the illustration close to the essay text referring to it. You can place the picture wherever makes the most sense in your essay. Keep images inside your 1-inch margins throughout your MLA-style document.