Data storage device Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tapea long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. The earliest form of non-volatile computer storage was the magnetic druminvented in  and used in the Ferranti Mark 1the world's first commercially available general-purpose electronic computer. It has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in to exabytes in doubling roughly every 3 years. Database Database management systems emerged in the s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly.
Summary The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers HCWs with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings.
In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings. CDC guideline for handwashing and hospital environmental control, APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings.
Am J Infect Control ; New studies of the in vivo efficacy of alcohol-based hand rubs and the low incidence of dermatitis associated with their use are reviewed.
Recent studies demonstrating the value of multidisciplinary hand-hygiene promotion programs and the potential role of alcohol-based hand rubs in improving hand-hygiene practices are summarized.
Recommendations concerning related issues e. Review of the Scientific Data Regarding Hand Hygiene Historical Perspective For generations, handwashing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene 1.
The concept of cleansing hands with an antiseptic agent probably emerged in the early 19th century. As early asa French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odors associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics 2.
In a paper published inthis pharmacist stated that physicians and other persons attending patients with contagious diseases would benefit from moistening their hands with a liquid chloride solution 2.
InIgnaz Semmelweis observed that women whose babies were delivered by students and physicians in the First Clinic at the General Hospital of Vienna consistently had a higher mortality rate than those whose babies were delivered by midwives in the Second Clinic 3.
He noted that physicians who went directly from the autopsy suite to the obstetrics ward had a disagreeable odor on their hands despite washing their hands with soap and water upon entering the obstetrics clinic.
He postulated that the puerperal fever that affected so many parturient women was caused by "cadaverous particles" transmitted from the autopsy suite to the obstetrics ward via the hands of students and physicians.
Perhaps because of the known deodorizing effect of chlorine compounds, as of Mayhe insisted that students and physicians clean their hands with a chlorine solution between each patient in the clinic. The maternal mortality rate in the First Clinic subsequently dropped dramatically and remained low for years.
This intervention by Semmelweis represents the first evidence indicating that cleansing heavily contaminated hands with an antiseptic agent between patient contacts may reduce health-care--associated transmission of contagious diseases more effectively than handwashing with plain soap and water.
InOliver Wendell Holmes concluded independently that puerperal fever was spread by the hands of health personnel 1. Although he described measures that could be taken to limit its spread, his recommendations had little impact on obstetric practices at the time.
However, as a result of the seminal studies by Semmelweis and Holmes, handwashing gradually became accepted as one of the most important measures for preventing transmission of pathogens in health-care facilities. Inthe U.
Public Health Service produced a training film that demonstrated handwashing techniques recommended for use by health-care workers HCWs 4. At the time, recommendations directed that personnel wash their hands with soap and water for minutes before and after patient contact.
Rinsing hands with an antiseptic agent was believed to be less effective than handwashing and was recommended only in emergencies or in areas where sinks were unavailable. In andformal written guidelines on handwashing practices in hospitals were published by CDC 5,6.The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings.
In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of. Since we have been cataloguing the artefacts and archives within the Heritage Centre.
We currently have over records, it is now possible to . Since we have been cataloguing the artefacts and archives within the Heritage Centre. We currently have over records, it is now possible to search the collection on-line. Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
IT is considered to be a subset of information and communications technology (ICT).. Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing.
The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of.
The Occult Review (UK Edn) (incorporating 'The London Forum' Sept to April ) London Ralph Shirley.