Because his father, Alexander Stirling Calder, received public commissions, the family traversed the country throughout Calder's childhood. Calder was encouraged to create, and from the age of eight he always had his own workshop wherever the family lived. For Christmas inCalder presented his parents with two of his first sculptures, a tiny dog and duck cut from a brass sheet and bent into formation. The duck is kinetic—it rocks back and forth when tapped.
Footprint measurements and methodology[ edit ] The natural resources of Earth are finiteand unsustainably strained by current levels of human activity. ForGlobal Footprint Network estimated humanity's ecological footprint as 1.
This means that, according to their calculations, humanity's demands were 1. Cities, due to their population concentrationhave large ecological footprints and have become ground zero for footprint reduction.
This approach can also be applied to an activity such as the manufacturing of a product or driving of a car. This resource accounting is similar to life-cycle analysis wherein the consumption of energybiomass foodfiberbuilding Huella proposalwater and other resources are converted into a normalized measure of Huella proposal area called global hectares gha.
Per capita ecological footprint EFor ecological footprint analysis EFAis a means of comparing consumption and lifestyles, and checking this against nature's ability to provide for this consumption.
The tool can inform policy by examining to what extent a nation uses more or less than is available within its territory, or to what extent the nation's lifestyle would be replicable worldwide.
The footprint can also be a useful tool to educate people about carrying capacity and overconsumptionwith the aim of altering personal behavior.
Ecological footprints may be used to argue that many current lifestyles are not sustainable. Such a global comparison also clearly shows the inequalities of resource use on this planet at the beginning of the twenty-first century.
Inthe average biologically productive area per person worldwide was approximately 1. The world-average ecological footprint in was 2. The increase of biocapacity averaged at only 0. Because of agricultural intensification, biocapacity was at 9. InEarth Overshoot Daythe date where humanity has used more from nature then the planet can renew in the entire year, was estimated to be August 1 .
This means their ecological footprint for consumption exceeds the biocapacity of that country. Despite being populated by relatively "mainstream" home-buyers, BedZED was found to have a footprint of 3. The report did not measure the added footprint of the 15, visitors who have toured BedZED since its completion in Findhorn Ecovillagea rural intentional community in MorayScotlandhad a total footprint of 2.
However, the residents alone have a footprint of 2. However this should not be surprising, since the two methods address different research questions. Newman has argued that the ecological footprint concept may have an anti-urban bias, as it does not consider the opportunities created by urban growth.
New York and Singapore respectively — may lead to the perception of these populations as "parasitic". This is because these communities have little intrinsic biocapacity, and instead must rely upon large hinterlands.
Critics argue that this is a dubious characterization since mechanized rural farmers in developed nations may easily consume more resources than urban inhabitants, due to transportation requirements and the unavailability of economies of scale.
Furthermore, such moral conclusions seem to be an argument for autarky. Some even take this train of thought a step further, claiming that the Footprint denies the benefits of trade. Therefore, the critics argue that the Footprint can only be applied globally.
For example, replacing ancient woodlands or tropical forests with monoculture forests or plantations may improve the ecological footprint. Similarly, if organic farming yields were lower than those of conventional methods, this could result in the former being "penalized" with a larger ecological footprint.Discover Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) from great universities.
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BIOGRAPHY. Alexander Calder was born in , the second child of artist parents—his father was a sculptor and his mother a painter.
Because his father, Alexander Stirling Calder, received public commissions, the family traversed the country throughout Calder's childhood. Flickr photos, groups, and tags related to the "clitoris" Flickr tag. Su Tomesen - International Art Professional working in the field of video, photography and installations.
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