When to Spell Out Numbers
Prehistoric numerals and Tally stick The first method of counting has been argued to be counting on fingers. Tallies made by carving notches in wood, bone, and stone were used for at least forty thousand years.
Lebombo bone is a baboon fibula with incised markings discovered in the Lebombo Mountains located between South Africa and Swaziland. The bone is between 44, and 43, years old, according to two dozen radiocarbon datings. According to The Universal Book of Mathematics the Lebombo bone's 29 notches suggest "it may have been used as a lunar phase counter, in which case African women may have been the first mathematicians, because keeping track of menstrual cycles requires a lunar calendar.
Furthermore, in the many more notched bones since found there is no consistent notch tally, many being in the 1—10 range. Ishango bone is an artifact with a sharp piece of quartz affixed to one end, perhaps for engraving. It was first thought to be a tally stickas it has a series of what has been interpreted as tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the tool.
But some scientists have suggested that the groupings of notches indicate a mathematical understanding that goes beyond counting. It has also been suggested that the scratches might have been to create a better grip on the handle or for some other non-mathematical reason.
It is believed that the bone is more than 20, years old. Louvre Museum The earliest known writing for record keeping evolved writing a range of numbers a system of counting using small clay tokens. The earliest tokens now known are those from two sites in the Zagros region of Iran: Tepe Asiab and Ganj-i-Dareh Tepe.
Each token represented one sheep. Representing a hundred sheep with a hundred tokens would be impractical, so they invented different clay tokens to represent different numbers of each specific commodity, and by BC strung the tokens like beads on a string.
Thirty-two sheep would be represented by three ten-sheep tokens followed on the string by two one-sheep tokens. To ensure that nobody could alter the number and type of tokens, they invented a clay envelope shaped like a hollow ball into which the tokens on a string were placed, sealed, and baked.
If anybody disputed the number, they could break open the clay envelope and do a recount. To avoid unnecessary damage to the record, they pressed archaic number signs and witness seals on the outside of the envelope before it was baked, each sign similar in shape to the tokens they represented.
Since there was seldom any need to break open the envelope, the signs on the outside became the first written language for writing numbers in clay.
An alternative method was to seal the knot in each string of tokens with a solid oblong bulla of clay having impressed symbols, while the string of tokens dangled outside of the bulla.
Each sign represented both the commodity being counted and the quantity or volume of that commodity. Abstract numerals, dissociated from the thing being counted, were invented about BC.
The Sumerians had a complex assortment of incompatible number systems, and each city had its own local way of writing numerals. For instance, at about BC in the city of Urukthere were more than a dozen different numeric systems. Furthermore, these systems changed over time; for instance, numbers for counting volumes of grain changed when the size of the baskets changed.
The Sumerians invented arithmetic. Multiplication and division were done with multiplication tables baked in clay tablets.
To represent numbers that previously had been pressed with a round stylus, these cuneiform number signs were pressed in a circular pattern and they retained the additive sign-value notation that originated with tokens on a string.
Cuneiform numerals and archaic numerals were ambiguous because they represented various numeric systems that differed depending on what was being counted. About BC in Sumer, these proto-sexagesimal sign-value systems gradually converged on a common sexagesimal number system that was a place-value system consisting of only two impressed marks, the vertical wedge and the chevron, which could also represent fractions.
Sexagesimal numerals were a mixed radix system that retained the alternating base 10 and base 6 in a sequence of cuneiform vertical wedges and chevrons.
Sexagesimal numerals became widely used in commerce, but were also used in astronomical and other calculations. This system was exported from Babylonia and used throughout Mesopotamia, and by every Mediterranean nation that used standard Babylonian units of measure and counting, including the Greeks, Romans and Syrians.
In Arabic numeralswe still use sexagesimal to count time minutes per hourand angles degrees. Roman numerals[ edit ] Roman numerals evolved from this primitive system of cutting notches.The national conventions for writing telephone numbers vary by country.
While international standards exist in the form of the International Telecommunication Union sector ITU-T issued recommendation E, national telephone numbering plans define the format and length of telephone numbers assigned to telephones..
The presentation of telephone numbers in this article does not . Hello Amelon Bulldogs and Families, Welcome to the school year! I am honored to continue to serve Amelon in the Assistant Principal role and look forward to continuing my work with Mr.
Sales, as well as the rest of our staff, in our efforts to do whatever it takes to advance the achievement of all students in our school. >On my system, writing , values using a loop takes seconds.
A faster way to accomplish the task is to put the value in an array, and then transfer the array to the worksheet. The earliest known writing for record keeping evolved from a system of counting using small clay tokens.
The earliest tokens now known are those from two sites in the Zagros region of Iran: Tepe Asiab and Ganj-i-Dareh Tepe. To create a record that represented "two sheep", they selected two round clay tokens each having a + sign baked into it. If you come upon a case where you have two related numbers in the same sentence, you should write them both as numerals if you would write one as a numeral.
The idea is to write them the same way when they are in the same sentence. Hi all, the informations and hints I have read here are all really helpful. I think it is best to avoid the use of seq. The reason is that some scripts need to be portable and must run on a wide variety of unix systems, where some commands may not be present.